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Capital: Madrid

Official EU language(s): Spanish

EU member country: since 1 January 1986

Currency: euro. Spain adopted the euro on 1 January 1999.

Schengen: Spain has been a member of the Schengen area since 26 March 1995.

Figures: Geographical size – population – gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in PPS

Political system

Spain operates as a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy with a prime minister serving as the head of government and a monarch as the head of state. The executive branch is represented by a council of ministers, presided over by the prime minister. Spain is a unitary state comprising 17 autonomous communities and 2 autonomous cities, each with varying degrees of autonomy.

Trade and economy

In 2020, Spain’s economy was characterized by significant contributions from sectors such as public administration, defence, education, human health, and social work activities (20.5%), wholesale and retail trade, transport, accommodation, and food services (19.7%), and industry (16.1%).

Within the EU, Spain primarily exports to France (16%), Germany (11%), and Italy (8%), accounting for 61% of its total exports. Outside the EU, 8% of exports are directed to the United Kingdom and 5% to the United States.

Imports are mainly sourced from EU countries, with Germany (14%), France (11%), and Italy (7%) being significant contributors, amounting to 57% of total imports. Beyond the EU, 9% of imports come from China and 4% from the United States.

Spain in the EU

European Parliament

Spain is represented by 59 members in the European Parliament.

Council of the EU

Spanish government representatives participate in Council meetings to adopt EU laws and coordinate policies.

Presidency of the Council of the EU

Spain has held the Presidency of the Council of the EU during various terms, including Jan-Jun 1989, Jul-Dec 1995, Jan-Jun 2002, Jan-Jun 2010, and Jul-Dec 2023.

European Commission

Josep Borrell Fontelles represents Spain as the Commissioner nominated to the European Commission, holding the position of High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy/Vice-President of the European Commission.

European Economic & Social Committee

Spain contributes 21 representatives to the European Economic and Social Committee, providing consultation on proposed laws affecting work and social situations.

European Committee of the Regions

With 21 representatives on the European Committee of the Regions, Spain ensures regional perspectives are considered in proposed laws.

Permanent representation to the EU

Spain communicates with EU institutions through its permanent representation in Brussels, ensuring effective pursuit of the country’s interests and policies within the EU.

Budgets and Funding

Spain’s contributions to the EU budget are determined based on its economic capacity, supporting various programs and projects across EU countries. The EU budget prioritizes the needs of Europeans as a whole.